POPULAR STRUGGLES AND MOVEMENTS _POLITICAL SCIENCE (2013-14) CLASS X TERM II
Q.1What were the main features of popular movement in Nepal?
Answer: The movement of April 2006 was aimed at regaining popular control over the govt. from the king.
1. All major popular political parties in the Parliament formed a “Seven Party Alliance(SPA) and called for a four day strike in Kathmandu,the country’s capital.
2. The protest soon turned into an indefinite strike in which the Maoist insurgents and various other organizations joined hands.
3. People defied curfew and took to the streets.The security found themselves unable to take on more than a lakh people to gather almost everyday to demand the restoration of democracy.
4.The no.of protestors reached between 3 to 5 lakhs.On 21st April,they served an ultimatum to the king.The king had made a few concessions,however,the leaders of the movement rejected the concessions.
5.They stuck to their demand of restoration of Parliament,power to all-party govt. and a new
6.On 24th April 2004,the last day of ultimatum the king was forced to concede all the three demands.
7.The SPA chose Girija Prasad Koirala as the new Prime Minister of the interim(temporary) govt. .The restored parliament met and passed laws taking away most of the powers of the king.
8. The SPA and Maoists came to an understanding about how the new constituent assembly was to be elected.
This struggle came to be known as Nepal’s Second Movement for Democracy.The struggle of the people of Nepal has been a source of inspiration for democrats all over the world.
Q.2.Mention the three demands of SPA.
Answer: The three demands of SPA were:
a) Restoration of parliament
b) Power to all party govt.
c) New constituent assembly
Q.3.Despite their ideological differences why is it that the following came together in Nepal’s popular struggle. (A) Various Political parties. (B) SPA and and Maoists
Answer: (a) Various political parties came together for a common aim of removing the king Gyanendra.They
wanted restoration of democracy from dictatorial king although each of them wanted power for their
own party and did not want to give away power to any other political party.
b) SPA and Maoists have different ideologies because Maoists wanted communalism and SPA did not want so. However ;SPA and Maoists came together for revolting against the dictatorial king.They wanted their right to freedom and various other rights for which they joined hands to remove the king.
CASE STUDY-BOLIVIA Bolivia is a poor country in Latin America where the people organized a popular struggle to strengthen democracy.
Q.4.What were the reasons that led to popular struggle in Bolivia?
1)The World Bank pressurized the govt.to give up its control of Municipal water supply.
2.The govt.sold these rights to a multi national company for the city of Cochabamba.
3.The company immediately increased the price of water by four times.Many people received the monthly water bill of Rs.1000 in a country where the average income is Rs.5000 a month. This led to a spontaneous popular protest.
4.The contract with the MNC was cancelled and water supply was restored to the municipality at old rates.This came to be known as Bolivia’s water war.
5.In January 2000,a new alliance of labour,human rights and community leaders joined a four day political strike in city.
6.The govt.agreed to negotiate and the strike was called off.Nothing happened and so they protested again though they were brutally suppressed.
7.Another strike took place in April and the govt.imposed tha martial law.
8.The power of the people forced the officials of the MNC to flee the city and made the govt.to concede to all the demands of the protestors.
Q.5.What were the common features of the popular struggle in Nepal and Bolivia?
1) Both these are the instances of political conflict that led to popular struggles.
2.) In both cases,struggle involved mass mobilization.
3.) Public demonstration of mass support clinched the dispute.
4.) Both instances involved critical role of political organizations.
Q.6.When is democratic conflict resolved through popular struggles?
Answer: Popular struggles take place when the country is going through transition to democracy, expansion of democracy or deepening of democracy.
1.Democratic conflict is resolved through mass mobilization. Sometimes it is possible that the conflict is resolved by using the existing institutions like parliament or the judiciary. But when there is a deep dispute very often these institutions themselves get involved in the dispute. The resolution has to come from outside, from the people.
2.These conflicts and mobilizations are based on political organizations. Thus there is an element of spontaneity in all such historic movements. But the spontaneous public participation becomes effective with the help of organized politics .There can be many agencies of organized politics. These include political parties, pressure groups and movement groups.
Q.7.Describe the of various organizations in Nepal’s popular struggle.
Answer: Various political parties (SPA), human rights groups and organizations of indigenous people such as teacers and lawyers extended their support to the popular struggle.
Q.8.Briefly mention the organizations which contributed to popular movement in Bolivia.
(a) Various organizations: In Bolivia the popular struggle was led by FEDECOR which comprised of local professionals, engineers and environmentalists.
(b) Federation: Federation of farmers, factory workers ,middle class students from university of Cochabamba and the city’s growing population of homeless and the street children.
(c) Political parties: The movement against privatization of water was also supported by the Socialist Party. In 2006,this political party came into power in Bolivia.
Q.9 Mention the various ways in which people can make govt.to listen to their demands.
Answer: (1) One obvious way of influencing their decisions in democracy is direct participation in competitive potics.
(2)This is done by creating parties,contesting elections and forming govt.
(3)But every citizen does not participate so directly.
(4.)They may have the desire,the need or the skills to take part in direct political activity other than voting.
(5)There are many indirect ways in which people can get govt to listen to their demands.
(6)They could do so by forming an organization and undertaking activities to promote their interst.
(7) These are called interest groups or pressure groups.Sometimes people decide to act together without forming organizations.
Q.10. What are pressure groups?
Answer: Pressure groups are organizations that attempts to influence govt. policies. But unlike the political parties the pressure groups do not aim to directly control or share political power. .These organizations are formed when people with common occupations ,interests, aspirations or opinions come together in order to achieve a common objective.
Q.12.Mention a few examples of the pressure groups.
Answer: 12.Farmers’ organizations- Bharatiya Kisan Union
2. Trade Unions-AITUC-All India Trade Union Congress
3. Business groups-FICCI-Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industries.
Q.13.Mention the two types pressure groups and describe them briefly.
Answer: Sectional Interest Groups: T hese are interest gropus which promote interests , betterment and well being of a particular section of society. They work for the betterment of their members only.For eg.trade unions, teachers’ associations, doctors’ associations. They are sectional because they represent a section of society.
Public Interest Groups: They are also called promotional groups as they promote collective interests rather than selective interests. They aim to help other than their own members. They represent common or general interests even though members of its organizations get no benefit from it.Eg, FEDECOR In Bolivia, Human Rights Organization in Nepal. Both these public interest groups share common concern for the entire country.
Q.14.What is a movement? Write a short note on it.
Answer:14.A movement attempts to influence politics rather than directly taking part in electoral
competition.There are two types of movements.These are”
1)Issue Specific Movement:They seek to achieve a single objective within a limited time frame.Eg.The Nepalese movement had a specific objective to reverse the king’s order.In India the Narmada Bachao Andolan is an issue specific movement which aims to stop the construction of Sardar Sarovar Dam on Narmada river.
2)General movement:They seek to achieve broad goals in the long run involving more than one issue.Eg.Environmental movement.General movements are also called multi issue movement.
Sometimes these broad movements have a loose umbrella organization as well. Egthe National Alliance for Peoples’ Movement(NAPM) is an organization of organizations.
Q.15.In what ways the pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics?
Answer: Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics in a variety of ways:
(1)They try to gain public support and sympathy for their goals and their activities by carrying out information campaigns, organizing meetings, filing petitions etc. Most of these groups try to influence the media into giving more attention to these issues.
(2)They organize protest activities like strikes or disrupting governmental programmes . Workers’ organizations, employers’ organizations and most of the movements often resort to these tactics in order to force the govt. to take note of their demands.
(3) Business groups often employ professional lobbyists or sponsor expensive advertisements. Some persons from pressure groups or movement groups may participate in official bodies and committies that offer advice to the govt.
Q.16.What is the relationship between political parties and pressure groups?
Answer: (1)In some instances the pressure groups are either formed or led by political parties or act as extended arms of political parties.For eg.ABVP and NSUI which are popular students’ organizations in India are either established by or affiliated to one or the other major political party.
(2) Sometimes political parties emerge out of movement.Eg.Assam movement led to the formation of Asom Gana Parishad.
(3) Poltical parties such as DMK and AIADMK can be traced to social reform movement.
(4)At times movements raised new issues that have been taken up by political patries.Most of the new leaders of the political parties come from the interest and the movement groups.
Q.17.Describe the positive and negative effects of pressure groups.
Answer: Positive effects-Pressure groups and movements have deepened democracy as they remind the govt of needs and concerns of ordinary citizens and help in the accommodation of conflicting interests.
Negative effects-At times the pressure groups and movement groups are not healthy as they do not promote interest of all and promote interest of one section. Democracy has to look after the interests of all sections. Groups wield power without responsibility. Sometimes pressure groups with small public support but lots of money can hijack public discussion in favour of their narrow agenda.
Q.18.What is the difference between pressure groups and political parties?
(1)Pressure groups are organizations that interefere governmental policies.
(2)They are formed by people with common occupational interests ans aspiration s .Eg . AITUC, FICCI.
(3) Limited time span for their objectives.
(1) Peoples’ movements refer to collective interest movements.
(2)Movements have a loose organization and people from diverse occupations having a common interst come together.Eg.Narmada Bachao Andolan
(3) No specific time frame Pressure groups-These influence the policies and programmes of parties helping in interest of their own group.
Political Parties-Their aim is o control or share power by contesting elections and forming the govt.
(1) Loose organizations
(2)Decision making is informal and flexible
(3)Depend much more on mass participation
(2)Decision making is formal and inflexible
(3)Depend very less on mass participation
Issue specific movement:
(1) Single objective
(2) limited timeframe
(3) Clear leadership and organization
(4)short active life
1) broad goal(more than one issue)
2) long term
3) loose umbrella organization
4) longer active life